****  ORIGINAL ROMAN ANTIQUES 

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Roman Terms for Describing Features of the Roman Coins Posted Below:

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* Denarius (plural denarii) is an ancient Roman coin made of silver.  The Denarius is believed by scholars to have been a Roman soldier's daily pay. It was originally equal to 10 asses, hence its name.  The Denarius was minted from approximately 211 B.C. to 270 A.D. *

* The As (plural Asses), also Assarius was a bronze, and later copper Coin minted and used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire *

*The Antoninianus was a Coin minted and used during the Roman Empire, valued at 2 Denarri.  Initially minted of Silver, it was later debased to bronze * 

* The Fourree is a Coin (Counterfeit Denarius), made with a base of non-precious metal (bronze or copper in Roman History), that is plated with Silver. Usually struck by traveling military mints when Silver stock was low.  Julius Caesar, known for paying his Legends before battle, produced Fourrees as a method of payment to his troops in at least one campaign *

* The TETRADRACHM was the major silver denomination of the Greek world, and was also minted by the Romans at numerous provincial cities of the east. The most prolific of these mints was at Antioch in Syria.  Initially minted of Silver, it was later debased to bronze *

* Billon is an alloy of a precious metal (most commonly silver, but also mercury) with a majority base metal content (such as copper). It is used chiefly for making coins.  The use of billon coins dates from ancient Greece and continued through the Middle Ages. During the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. Billon coins are perhaps best known from the Roman Empire, where progressive debasements of the Roman denarius and the Roman provincial Tetradrachm in the 2nd century A.D. led to declining silver and increasing bronze content in these denominations of coins. Eventually, by the third quarter of the 2nd century A.D., these coins were almost entirely bronze, with only a thin coating or even a wash of silver. *

 * Diademed = Crowned with a Headband worn as a badge of royalty *  ~  * Biga = 2-Horse Chariot *  ~  * Quadriga = 4-Horse Chariot *  ~  * Galley = Roman Warship *  ~  * Vexillum = Flag like object used as a military standard by units of Roman army *  ~  * Cornucopia = Horn of Plenty * ~ *  Labarum = was a vexillum that displayed the Chi-Rho symbol formed from the first two Greek letters (X overlaid on top of P), of the word "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ), which was first used by the Roman Emperor Constantine I.  Since the vexillum consisted of a flag (Roman standard), suspended from the crossbar of a cross, it was ideally suited to symbolize the crucifixion of Christ * ~ * Dioscuri = were twin deities named Castor & Pollux in Greek and Roman Mythology, offspring of Zeus & Leda, who aided shipwrecked sailors and received sacrifices for favorable winds *  ~  * The Palladium was a cult image of great antiquity in Greek and Roman mythology, on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend * ~ * Parazonium is a long triangular dagger, wide at the hilt end and coming to a point. In Roman mythology, it is frequently carried by Virtus, particularly on early representations. It is also sometimes carried by Mars, or Roma, or the Emperor, giving them the aura of courage.

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AUTHENTIC, ANTIQUE ROMAN COINS LISTED AS FOLLOWS:

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AUTHENTIC ~ PRE-CAESAR Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Rome mint: 268-75 B.C. ~ Obverse:  Diademed bust of Roma facing right, X behind head ~ Reverse: (shown below) Jupiter in Biga facing right ~ 3/4 inch (20 mm) ~ (3.6 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-001 ~ ($250.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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  AUTHENTIC ~ PRE-CAESAR Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Rome mint ~ 268-75 B.C. ~ Obverse:  Diademed bust of Roma facing right, X below head ~ Reverse: (shown below) Jupiter in Quadriga facing right ~ 11/16 inch (18 mm) ~ (3.8 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-002 ~ ($250.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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 AUTHENTIC ~ LUCIUS SCIPO ASIAGENUS ~ Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ Serrated SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Co-Consul with Gaius Norbanus ~ Rome mint: 83 B.C. ~ Obverse: Laureated  head of Jupiter facing left, L and pellet behind head ~ Reverse: (shown below) Jupiter driving fast quadriga right, preparing to cast thunderbolt and holding scepter and reins facing right, LSCIPASIA in exergue ~ 3/4 inch (20 mm) ~ (3.9 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-003 ~ ($395.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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AUTHENTIC ~ PRE-CAESAR Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Rome mint: 268-75 B.C. ~ Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right ~ Reverse: (shown below) Jupiter in Quadriga facing right ~ MCARBO ~ ROMA in exergue ~ 11/16 inch (18 mm) ~ (3.8 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-004 ~ ($250.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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AUTHENTIC ~ TITUS QUINCTIUS FLAMINIUS ~ Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Rome mint: 109-108 B.C. ~ Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right, X below chin, ROMA behind ~ Reverse: (shown below) Victory in Biga facing right ~ L . FLAMINI below horses, Mintmark:  FLAMIN / CILO in exergue ~ This reverse records the successes in Gaul in 223 B.C. of C. Flaminius the first member of the moneyer's family who rose to eminence ~ 3/4 inch (19 mm) ~ (3.8 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-005 ~ ($210.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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AUTHENTIC ~ MARCUS PLAETORIUS CESTIANUS ~ Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Rome mint: 67 B.C. ~ Obverse: Helmeted Female Bust facing right, CESTIANUS behind, SC front ~ Reverse: (shown below) M PLAETORIVS M F AED CVR around Eagle on Thunderbolt facing left ~ 3/4 inch (19 mm) ~ (3.8 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-006 ~ ($245.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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  AUTHENTIC ~ MARCUS ANTONIUS (aka: MARK ANTONY) ~ Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ 32-31 B.C. ~ Obverse: Galley facing right ~ Reverse: (shown below) Legionary Eagle between two Trophy Vexillums, with LEG VI (Legion VI), below  ~  11/16 inch (18 mm) ~ (3.3 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-008 ~ ($75.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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AUTHENTIC ~ SEPTIMUS SEVERUS ~ Ancient ROMAN Imperial ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ 193-211 A.D. ~ Obverse: Septimus Severus, his Laureated bust facing right ~ Reverse: (shown below) Annona standing facing left, holding Cornucopia and Scale ~ 11/16 inch (18 mm) ~ (3.0 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-009  ~ ($75.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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AUTHENTIC ~ SEVERUS ALEXANDER (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus) ~ Ancient ROMAN Imperial ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ 222-235 A.D. ~ Obverse: (shown below) Severus Alexander, his Laureated and draped bust facing right ~ Reverse: Annona standing facing left, holding cornucopia and scale ~  3/4 inch (20 mm) ~ (3.0 grams) ~ ITEM # roma-010 ~ ($75.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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AUTHENTIC ~ JULIUS CAESAR ~ Ancient ROMAN Republic ~ SILVER DENARIUS COIN ~ Galia mint: - 49-46 B.C. ~ Obverse: Diademed head of Venus facing right, small Cupid behind ~ Reverse: (shown below) Vercingetorix  and female captives seated at foot of Trophy, CAESAR below ~ 11/16 inch (17-18 mm) ~ (3.8 grams) ~ Very Rare Coin ~ ITEM # roma-011 ~ ($540.) ~ Photo of Reverse Provided Below ~ 

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